Skip to main content


This article argues that disparities girls face in the juvenile justice system can be remedied by employing equal rights analysis including the federal Equal Protection Clause, state Equal Rights Amendments, and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Unlike the adult prison context, in which equal protection and Title IX have had limited success, the juvenile justice system is premised on individualized rehabilitative justice. Where differences between male and female offenders have undermined equal rights challenges in the adult arena, in the juvenile justice system differences among individual youth are acknowledged, and dispositions are driven by those individual needs. Under that individualized approach, equality means attending to the gender specific needs of girls. The article addresses the two situations in which the juvenile justice system treats girls most inequitably: development of specialized programs for boys that exclude girls, and providing girls with the same programming as boys without modification to address gender needs.


File nameDate UploadedVisibilityFile size
7 Sep 2022
573 kB



  • Subject
    • Civil Rights and Discrimination

    • Domestic Law

    • Health Law and Policy

    • Juvenile Law

  • Journal title
    • Wisconsin Women's Law Journal

  • Pagination
    • 9-50

  • Date submitted

    7 September 2022