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Criminal justice debt has aggressively metastasized throughout the criminal system. A bewildering array of fees, fines, court costs, non-payment penalties, and high interest rates have turned criminal process into a booming revenue center for state courts and corrections. As criminal justice “administrative” costs have skyrocketed, the burden to fund the system has fallen largely on the system’s users—primarily poor or indigent—who often cannot pay their burden. Unpaid criminal justice debt often leads to actual incarceration or substantial punitive fines, which turns rapidly into “punishment”. Such punishment at the hands of a court, bureaucracy, or private entity compromises the Sixth Amendment right to have all punishment imposed by a jury. This Article explores the netherworld of criminal justice debt and analyzes implications for the Sixth Amendment jury trial right, offering a new way to attack the problem. The specter of “cash-register justice,” which overwhelmingly affects the poor and dispossessed, perpetuates hidden inequities within the criminal justice system. This Article offers solutions rooted in Sixth Amendment jurisprudence.


File nameDate UploadedVisibilityFile size
8 Sep 2022
1.09 MB



  • Subject
    • Civil Rights and Discrimination

    • Constitutional Law

    • Criminal Law

    • Criminal Procedure

    • Law Enforcement and Corrections

  • Journal title
    • Boston College Law Review

  • Volume
    • 57

  • Issue
    • 5

  • Pagination
    • 1483

  • Date submitted

    8 September 2022