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Democratic elections are one of the foundational elements of a stable, healthy, and vibrant modern state. Current treaty law guarantees four basic participatory rights: periodic and regular elections, universal suffrage, secret ballots, and non-discrimination. Those rights are bolstered further through United Nations election monitoring and state practice. This Note argues that more must be done to guarantee true participatory rights in emerging and lesser developed nations. In particular, it proposes attaching conditions to World Bank funding that require adherence to the rights guaranteed under global and regional treaty law and the customary practice of states and international actors. In order to accomplish this goal, compliance with those conditions should be measured through United Nations monitoring reports.


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6 Sep 2022
161 kB



  • Subject
    • Election Law

    • Human Rights Law

    • International Law

  • Journal title
    • Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

  • Volume
    • 30

  • Issue
    • 2

  • Pagination
    • 485

  • Date submitted

    6 September 2022